RTMP Streaming Server

We all know Twitch and Youtube streaming, and some may know Hitbox. But what if you wanted to implement your own streaming server?

So what are the actual benefits to just using the mentioned services?

  • Private streams, no one can see them, no one can find them
  • Record everything without additional cost
  • Define which qualities the stream will be transcoded to
  • Embed streams on your own websites
  • May run "offline" just in your home for surveilance uses.

But there are disadvantages too:

  • Needs to run on a rented or owned box (so does probably cost something)
  • Machine with the server needs to be powerful
  • Probably does not scale to many viewers

So my intended purposes were watching my 3D printer from work (or even mobile when not at home) to be able to shut it down if it produces garbage and for some friends that stream to Twitch. So what? They stream to Twitch and need an own streaming server, why? That's easy: They play games together and wanted to show both screens side by side. So one of them bounces their stream to my server and the other one imports that stream in XSplit to send it to Twitch. You could probably do that with two Twitch streams but the latency is bad then. Over the setup I provide the latency is about 2-4 seconds, via Twitch it is more like 30 seconds.

What i tried

The first thing I tried was to search the APT repositories on Ubuntu for streaming servers, I found two:

  • crtmpserver
  • red5-server

While trying to set up crtmpserver I gave up after trying to get documentation for it (all websites and the Trac were down)

Red5 is Java so it fell out of consideration because I don't know my way around Java and Maven.

So I was standing there searching for alternatives. I found one, one that is really straightforward but it seemed the Git repo was abandoned some time ago. Then I looked if there were any forks that are in development. Oh boy there were many, about 1600, Github just gave up displaying the network graph and I had to search the most active and stable fork myself.

Github Screenshot

Then I found one: https://github.com/sergey-dryabzhinsky/nginx-rtmp-module

Thanks sergey :)

How to get it running

The project is an extension module to nginx. I know my way around nginx configuration so you can feel my joy!

The bad thing is that you have to recompile the complete nginx server, but as I only wanted to use it for streaming and run the Ubuntu default nginx for my web needs, that was no problem. Both nginx instances can coexist on the same machine. (There are 3 now, one for web, one from gitlab and one for streaming)

So let's build the thing:

# create a user
addgroup --system rtmp
adduser --system --home /srv/stream --group rtmp rtmp

# prepare build dir
mkdir -p src
cd src

# use stable nginx, the module does not compile with mainline
wget https://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.10.1.tar.gz 
git clone https://github.com/sergey-dryabzhinsky/nginx-rtmp-module.git

# build new nginx
tar xvzf nginx-1.10.1.tar.gz
cd nginx-1.10.1
./configure \
    --prefix=/opt/nginx-stream \
    --conf-path=/etc/nginx-stream/nginx.conf \
    --pid-path=/run/nginx-stream/nginx.pid \
    --lock-path=/run/nginx-stream/nginx.lock \
    --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx-stream/nginx.log \
    --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx-stream/error.log \
    --user=rtmp \
    --group=rtmp \
    --with-threads \
    --with-ipv6 \
    --with-http_ssl_module \
    --with-http_flv_module \
    --with-http_mp4_module \
    --with-http_gzip_static_module \
    --with-stream \
    --with-stream_ssl_module \
sudo make install


We replace the complete configuration that is installed in /etc/nginx-stream/nginx.conf:

Attention: This allows everyone to publish streams to your server, call control endpoints and see the status page, if you want authentication you'll have to configure it, see nginx documentation for details. I omitted the authentication stuff because it is another source of error when testing the setup.

We use the path /srv/stream/ for the user's home directory and for storage of needed html and media files (when recording).

To display the status page in a browser we have to give it a XSLT script to convert the XML the streaming server uses to something a browser can handle. We put the file into /srv/stream/html/style.xsl:

I know it is not the most elegant XSLT (neither is the HTML/CSS it generates) but it works for me.

Test-Run it

Just call sudo /opt/nginx-stream/sbin/nginx to start the server. You may kill the server by calling sudo pkill -F /run/nginx-stream/nginx.pid.

Of course you may write configuration or a start-script for your prefered init system now, but for testing purposes the two commands from above should do it.

Publish a stream

To test the system I used OBS Studio as it is available for all major OSes.

OBS screenshot of streaming settings

Now click on Start streaming:

OBS start streaming

When everything went right no error message should pop up and the status bar should change to display the current bandwidth usage.

To check if everything is right on the server, go to http://streaming.example.com:8080/stat/, it should look like this:

Stat page screenshot

As you can see you'll have some links you may click on. The first one (Drop) cancels the stream (but OBS won't know and keep sending UDP packets to your server which is unfortunate), the second (Start Recording) switches on recording mode. When you click on the record link the answer will be the path that will be recorded to.

Subscribe to a stream

We have two applications defined:

  • Live stream
  • Video on demand

How to watch a live stream

Via RTMP, use the following URL (in VLC for example): http://streaming.example.com:1935/live/<stream key>

Via HLS (HTML5 browser variant), fetch the playlist here: http://streaming.example.com:8080/live/<stream key>.m3u8

How to watch a recorded stream

Currently you may only watch a recorded stream via RTMP, HLS variants would mean to prepare a split up playlist before. The nginx module does not do that for permanent storage. (Watch the blog for a future article about transcoding/hls)

When you click the record link (to either start or stop recording) the file name, to which it will record, will be displayed, just use the last part (without the path) in the RTMP VOD url to play that file: http://streaming.example.com:1935/vod/<filename>

Wrap up

It's not that complicated to run a simple streaming server, and the version I described here does not even use a lot of CPU as it does no transcoding. All you need is bandwidth and a streaming source that is configured to send a stream everyone can use.

Watch the blog for another article on transcoding and how to really trash your CPU performance on a streaming server ;)

The right way to setup a VPN on windows

Remember that clicking orgy from the last blog post? It seems it is possible to completely script that. No more clicking... (And we can remove the Task Scheduler hack alltogether :) )

Firstly run Powershell as Administrator and update the script execution policy for temporary allowing to run scripts:

Get-ExecutionPolicy -List

Execution policy list

If everything displays Undefined update for running unverified scripts:

Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

Execution policy change

Now collect the machine certificate (p12 file) and the CA root and add the following script:

You have to configure the variables on top before running the script.

If you have finished the setup you may reset the execution policy to the value it was before: Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy Undefined

Thanks @_Tomalak for sending me the pointers to the right direction :)

IKEv2 VPN with StrongSWAN

Wow this was harder than i thought.

I just wanted to get a modern VPN on all my devices without the hassle to install third-party VPN clients on all of them (hello OpenVPN o/). The protocol of choice seems to be IKEv2 as all devices that I own seem to support this and it is more secure than the old PPTP or L2TP protocols the devices could support natively.

But let's just jump directly into it.

IPsec config

On the server we will be using StrongSWAN. All configuration is for Ubuntu 15.10 but should work on any distribution that has StrongSWAN as the configuration did not really change in the last few years.

Install StrongSWAN

At first we need to install StrongSWAN (all steps from here on should be done as the root user, switch to root by issuing sudo su - and typing your password):

apt install strongswan strongswan-plugin-af-alg strongswan-plugin-agent strongswan-plugin-certexpire strongswan-plugin-coupling strongswan-plugin-curl strongswan-plugin-dhcp strongswan-plugin-duplicheck strongswan-plugin-eap-aka strongswan-plugin-eap-aka-3gpp2 strongswan-plugin-eap-dynamic strongswan-plugin-eap-gtc strongswan-plugin-eap-mschapv2 strongswan-plugin-eap-peap strongswan-plugin-eap-radius strongswan-plugin-eap-tls strongswan-plugin-eap-ttls strongswan-plugin-error-notify strongswan-plugin-farp strongswan-plugin-fips-prf strongswan-plugin-gcrypt strongswan-plugin-gmp strongswan-plugin-ipseckey strongswan-plugin-kernel-libipsec strongswan-plugin-ldap strongswan-plugin-led strongswan-plugin-load-tester strongswan-plugin-lookip strongswan-plugin-ntru strongswan-plugin-pgp strongswan-plugin-pkcs11 strongswan-plugin-pubkey strongswan-plugin-radattr strongswan-plugin-sshkey strongswan-plugin-systime-fix strongswan-plugin-whitelist strongswan-plugin-xauth-eap strongswan-plugin-xauth-generic strongswan-plugin-xauth-noauth strongswan-plugin-xauth-pam strongswan-pt-tls-client

This one seems a bit excessive but I just installed everything I could find for StrongSWAN as I am lazy.


The next step is to get rid of the default configuration and supply our own:

The best bet here is to just move away the default config in /etc/ipsec.conf (or delete it as it does not contain anything of any value) and copy and paste the config above into it.

You will have to modify some values:

  • yourhostname.net should be the hostname of the box you connect to.
  • rightsourceip should be a private IPv4 network and a subnet of the IPv6 subnet of your server (if your server got a /64 probably add another address part and use a /112 here)
  • rightdns is the dns server that will be sent to the client, I just used Google's free DNS servers here.

If you only want to use IPv4 just remove the v6 addresses.

Packet forwarding

To allow the connected VPN clients to actually talk to each other you'll have to enable packet forwarding, if you don't do that the clients will only be able to speak with the server.

Create a new file in /etc/sysctl.d named 99-vpn.conf:

Reload the settings with sysctl --system

If you want to give the VPN clients Internet access you'll have to enable NAT for the interfaces and routing for IPv6. I just added these lines to /etc/rc.local, you probably want to use the default facility for iptables rules of your distribution though:

Don't forget to actually run the script afterwards to enable the rules without rebooting. (D'oh!)

Generating certificates

To be on the real secure side and to make device provisioning as easy as possible we use X.509 certificates to connect to the VPN.
There are 3 sets of certificates:

  • The root CA
  • The VPN server certificate
  • The client certificates

Switch to /etc/ipsec.d and run all the following in that directory.

Root CA

For a CA we need a key first (we pick a 4096 bit long RSA key here):

ipsec pki --gen --type rsa --size 4096 --outform der > private/strongswanKey.der
chmod 600 private/strongswanKey.der

So let's create a root CA:

ipsec pki --self --ca --lifetime 3650 --in private/strongswanKey.der --type rsa --dn "C=DE, O=Dunkelstern, CN=Dunkelstern VPN Root CA" --outform der > cacerts/strongswanCert.der

So what's all that stuff?

  • First we tell the ipsec tool to create a self signed ca with roughly 10 years of lifetime
  • Use the key we generated
  • Tell the pki tool some settings: The country (DE), the Organisation (Dunkelstern) and the Common Name (Dunkelstern VPN Root CA)

You should probably move all the root CA private files (the key!) off the machine after you're done with them and put them on a disk into a safe or something.

VPN Certificates

So we have a CA but we definitely do not want to use that directly for the VPN server, so we create a derivative Certificate that has the root CA as parent. So at first we need a key again:

ipsec pki --gen --type rsa --size 4096 --outform der > private/vpnHostKey.der
chmod 600 private/vpnHostKey.der

And now comes the interesing part:

export vpn_host="vpn.example.org"
export vpn_ipv4=""
export vpn_ipv6="::1"

ipsec pki --pub --in private/vpnHostKey.der --type rsa | ipsec pki --issue --lifetime 730 --cacert cacerts/strongswanCert.der --cakey private/strongswanKey.der --dn "C=DE, O=Dunkelstern, CN=$vpn_host" --san $vpn_ipv4 --san @$vpn_ipv4 --san $vpn_ipv6 --san @$vpn_ipv6 --flag serverAuth --flag ikeIntermediate --outform der > certs/vpnHostCert.der

You'll have to replace some values here:

  • vpn_host the hostname of the VPN server
  • vpn_ipv4 the public IPv4 address
  • vpn_ipv6 the public IPv6 address

Now it is really time to move the CA root private key ;)

Client certificates

To create client certificates I made a small script as you'll probably do this often:

Usage is something like create_vpn_user.sh kopernikus which will drop a p12 file in /etc/ipsec.d/p12/ with the name you supplied. The p12 file is encrypted with a pass-phrase you'll have to supply.


To get a working VPN config onto an iOS device you'll have to use a *.mobileconfig configuration profile as the VPN GUI of the iPhone and iPad has a bug that prevents valid connections as of iOS 9.3.

Create mobile config profile

Fetch the Apple Configurator 2 from the AppStore on a Mac (it's free but sadly there is no configurator for Windows)

After starting the configurator choose File->New Profile from the menu and fill the generic info field as you want:

Apple Configurator generic info

For the next step you'll need the p12 file and the vpnHostCert.der file to add to the certificate store:

Apple Configurator certificate store

And the last step: Configure the VPN

Apple Configurator VPN

Make sure you select the certificate auth method and the correct certificate. The Remote Identifier is what's in leftid in the ipsec.conf, the Local Identifier is what's in the Certificate's common name (machine@host).

Attention: Set the Encryption algorithm for IKE SA Params and Child SA Params to something sensible, do not use the 3DES default. 3DES is inherently unsafe!

If you're ready, save the config somewhere. So there's another step to get it running: Another Bug workaround!

Open the generated file in some text-editor and search for OverridePrimary and set it to zero!

Install on iOS device

The easiest way to install the configuration profile is just sending it to yourself as an email and then tap the attachment and allow it to install the VPN. If your device is enrolled in MDM (Mobile device management) you can send the profile over the air.


To connect to the VPN go into Settings->General->VPN and turn on the switch. All traffic will now be sent through the VPN. If the switch turns off immediately you either forgot to set OverridePrimary to zero or you chose an encryption that the server does not understand. Look into the server logfile for more information.


Just create a config file like you do for an iOS device and double click it. It will open in the System Preferences Profiles pane (which is not visible until you import a profile)

OSX System Prefs

I had to click the plus button and add the profile again as the preference pane did open but it did not automatically import the profile.

If you want to have an icon in the menu bar, switch to the Network pref-pane and tick the checkbox to show that icon:

Show in menu bar


(UPDATE: Wait stop right here! Read the follow up: The right way to setup a VPN on windows)

Oh my... Microsoft! To get it running on Windows you will have to jump over some obstacles. I am no windows guy, perhaps there's an easier way to do it, please mail me: hallo@dunkelstern.de

Import Certificates

Run the Management Console from the Win+R box with mmc:

Management Console

Now add the Certificates snap-in (File -> Add/Remove Snap in...):

Certificates Snap in

Switch to Console Root -> Certificates -> Personal -> Certificates and import the p12 file by clicking through the import wizard at Action -> All tasks -> Import.

Now you should have two new entries:

  • machinename@host
  • XY VPN Root CA

Move the Root CA to Trusted Root Certificate Authorities -> Certificates to trust it.

Setup VPN

First open the Network and Sharing Center (best done by right-clicking on the network icon in the task bar)

Network and Sharing Center

Now set up a new Network connection:

Network connection Workplace

VPN, not dialup

VPN step 1

Now go back to the Network and Sharing Center and click on Change Adapter Settings on the left. Select your VPN connection and open the properties window.

VPN Properties

Switch to the Security pane and set the VPN type to IKEv2 and the authentication to Use machine certificates.


On the Networking pane open the properties dialog for both Internet Protocol versions and set up the DNS servers as windows does not automatically take those from the VPN connection

DNS here

The connection is now ready to be activated, but there are some bugs hidden.

Public network? Why?

If you double click to connect now (which throws you over to the modern control panel)

Connect finally

You may notice that the network is classified as a public network. If you don't want it to be public follow the next steps. Skip them if public is ok with you.

First open the policy editor by running gpedit.msc from the Win+R window. Now navigate to Local Computer Policy -> Computer Configuration -> Windows Settings -> Security Settings -> Network List Manager Policies (Why is everything so wordy?), right click the VPN connection and set the Network Location

Network Location type

Getting IPv6 to work

If you look into the VPN connection status you may notice that IPv4 Connectivity says Internet and IPv6 Connectivity tells you No Network access. This is because Windows does not setup a default route through the VPN tunnel for IPv6 but depends on the Router on the other end to respond to router queries or send router advertisements. This could be done on the server but noone but Windows does need this and the error could be fixed by just running a single command on the windows box:

route -6 add ::0/0 2a01:4f8:190:2012:3::2

Where the IP on the end is the IP of your tunnel endpoint (look it up in the properties).

So how can we tell Windows to run that command for us... let's say it's a bit hacky what we are about to do now:

  1. Write a small netsh script to run
  2. Find the "VPN connection established"-Event in the event log
  3. Attach a scheduled task to that event type to run the script.

Hacky enough? Ok let's go.

Create a new text-file with the following content:

interface ipv6
add route ::0/0 "VPN Connection" 2a01:4f8:190:2012:3::2

Replace VPN Connection with the name of your connection and the IP address with the IP address you get from the VPN server. Move that text file somewhere where you will not delete it by accident.

Now open the event viewer (Win+R run eventvwr) and navigate to
Event Viewer (Local) -> Applications and Service Logs -> Microsoft -> Windows -> NetworkProfile -> Operational (wow!)

Event viewer path

Now find the event that signifies that the VPN connection was established. It usually has the Event ID 10000 and we need an entry with the State: Connected flag set.

Log entry

Finally we attach a task to that event, which will be called everytime the VPN connects.


My script was called route.nsh and I dropped it into C:\ directly.

Attention: Do not finish the wizard without telling it to open the task properties at the end, we have something to do there!

Set the Run with highes privileges checkbox.

High privilege

... turn off the energy save mode and set the task to run only if the VPN connection is available:

On battery too

Finished! If you now disconnect and then reconnect the VPN IPv6 will work through the tunnel!


coming soon.

Bash on Windows

So with the Windows 10 Anniversary update came the "Bash on Windows" feature. It is still beta and this really shows. So let me tell you of my experience getting it to work.

How to setup?

There are many blog posts for this but it all boils down to one single command on the Windows command prompt:

 LxRun.exe /install /y

It will then download a very minimal version of Ubuntu from the Windows Store (yes it really displays this). After this you can run bash on the command prompt or search the start menu for "Bash on Ubuntu on Windows" (wow what a name!)

What will work and what will not

So the complete subsystem starts and stops with the bash.exe running which literally means if you close the bash window everything is killed with it. So forget running any daemons in the background.

Microsoft itself said that running server software is not supported and is currently not planned to be supported. If you run your server daemon in the foreground in a bash window it will be accessible on the localhost network though. Part of this is probably because neither Upstart nor systemd could be run on the kernel interface that is available currently. There is no process 1, there is no init. Imagine that bash is running a emergency system repair console on a failed linux boot and you'll understand what is available right now.

You can see the complete Linux kernel interface is thought for developers. You will have access to the local disk, you will have access to the local network, but that's it primarily.

It's a bit sad that Microsoft decided to use Ubuntu 14.04 instead of the 2016 version, but i suppose this is just a symptom of "We need to get it running first" and will be updated at some later date.

How to get a decent terminal emulator

The first thing after getting it to work for me was to get rid of the Windows terminal emulator (if you want to call it that). Don't get me wrong they really put effort into upgrading it to support at least part of the VT100 spec, but copy and paste and mouse support aren't there yet, which is a no-go for me. So how can we get a better emulator on top of it?

Of course you could use what everyone on Windows seems to use: ConEmu. You'll have to put some time into configuring it correctly (get my config here: Github gist) but it even has a bash profile (which is thought for cygwin bash but works for the native bash too ;) )

ConEmu Screenshot

On the other hand you could do it the Unix way: Install an X-Server and run let's say lxterminal which is rather easy to do too. I used lxterminal as an example because I confirmed it works, urxvt for example does not as it requests a PTY from the kernel and this is currently not supported on Windows.

  1. Get an X-Server (like VCXsrv) installed

  2. Run it ;)

  3. Install lxterminal on the Linux subsystem:

     sudo apt-get install lxterminal
  4. Find the Bash on Ubuntu on Windows executable in C:\Windows\System32\bash.exe and create a shortcut to that

  5. Open the properties window of that shortcut and add -c "DISPLAY=:0 lxterminal" to the Target

Properties Window

  1. Start the Shortcut and do not close the cmd window (the one with the Ubuntu logo) but instead minimize it.

  2. Use the lxterminal window

LX Terminal

If you install an X-Server this way you can even use most GUI programs from the Ubuntu repositories, just remember to export DISPLAY=:0 before running any GUI tool.

Beware: There is no hardware acceleration as all drawing commands go through the loopback network interface (It should be faster than RDP though), so better do not run something like Firefox or Chromium on that.

How to get rid of it again

This is as easy as installation. To remove everything, including your home dir:

lxrun /uninstall /full

To just remove the Ubuntu installation:

lxrun /uninstall

Bash tricks

Some small list of tricks to make bash better and more like z-shell without actually switching over. You may use these instead of switching over because for example there is no z-shell or you may not have admin privileges on a server.


Some things to make editing better and faster.

Better history search

Make your up/down-arrow keys more awesome with the following lines in your ~/.inputrc:

"\e[A": history-search-backward
"\e[B": history-search-forward

With those lines your up and down keys just work like you know on empty lines, but if you start typing and touch an arrow key you will search your history with the prefix you just entered.

Better prompt

As you are probably aware the variable PS1 defines your prompt, but you probably don't know about PROMPT_COMMAND, this command is executed each time a new prompt is shown, and yes it can call a bash function () {}, so have fun builing your prompt.

ANSI colors


Add these to ~/.bash_rc to be able to colorize your output. Probably useful for PS1.

Useful aliases

Actually some aliases and single line functions, because I can't remember everything.

Serve current directory as a website

alias serve='python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8008'

This needs python installed (it seems to be installed everywhere nowadays) and opens a HTTP server that serves the current directory on port 8008. It honours index.html files but does not dynamic parsing, etc.

Quit with CTRL+C

Hexdump a file

alias hexhead='xxd -g 1 -l 1024'
function hex() { xxd -g 1 "$1" | ${PAGER:-less} }
function hextail() { tail -c 1024 "$1" | xxd -g 1 } 

hexhead displays the first kilobyte of the file as a hex dump, just hex displays all of it in your default pager (or less if not set, Beware: Don't do this to Big files, it takes ages ;) ). hextail displays the last kilobyte.

Switch a python virtualenv

function venv() { . "$HOME/.virtualenvs/$1/bin/activate" }

Switch to a python virtual env by name (assuming you store your virtual python installations in $HOME/.virtualenvs)