So with the Windows 10 Anniversary update came the "Bash on Windows" feature. It is still beta and this really shows. So let me tell you of my experience getting it to work.
How to setup?
There are many blog posts for this but it all boils down to one single command on the Windows command prompt:
LxRun.exe /install /y
It will then download a very minimal version of Ubuntu from the Windows Store (yes it really displays this). After this you can run
bash on the command prompt or search the start menu for "Bash on Ubuntu on Windows" (wow what a name!)
What will work and what will not
So the complete subsystem starts and stops with the
bash.exe running which literally means if you close the bash window everything is killed with it. So forget running any daemons in the background.
Microsoft itself said that running server software is not supported and is currently not planned to be supported. If you run your server daemon in the foreground in a bash window it will be accessible on the localhost network though. Part of this is probably because neither Upstart nor systemd could be run on the kernel interface that is available currently. There is no process 1, there is no init. Imagine that bash is running a emergency system repair console on a failed linux boot and you'll understand what is available right now.
You can see the complete Linux kernel interface is thought for developers. You will have access to the local disk, you will have access to the local network, but that's it primarily.
It's a bit sad that Microsoft decided to use Ubuntu 14.04 instead of the 2016 version, but i suppose this is just a symptom of "We need to get it running first" and will be updated at some later date.
How to get a decent terminal emulator
The first thing after getting it to work for me was to get rid of the Windows terminal emulator (if you want to call it that). Don't get me wrong they really put effort into upgrading it to support at least part of the VT100 spec, but copy and paste and mouse support aren't there yet, which is a no-go for me. So how can we get a better emulator on top of it?
Of course you could use what everyone on Windows seems to use: ConEmu. You'll have to put some time into configuring it correctly (get my config here: Github gist) but it even has a bash profile (which is thought for cygwin bash but works for the native bash too ;) )
On the other hand you could do it the Unix way: Install an X-Server and run let's say
lxterminal which is rather easy to do too. I used
lxterminal as an example because I confirmed it works,
urxvt for example does not as it requests a PTY from the kernel and this is currently not supported on Windows.
Get an X-Server (like VCXsrv) installed
Run it ;)
lxterminalon the Linux subsystem:
sudo apt-get install lxterminal
Bash on Ubuntu on Windowsexecutable in
C:\Windows\System32\bash.exeand create a shortcut to that
Open the properties window of that shortcut and add
-c "DISPLAY=:0 lxterminal"to the
Start the Shortcut and do not close the
cmdwindow (the one with the Ubuntu logo) but instead minimize it.
If you install an X-Server this way you can even use most GUI programs from the Ubuntu repositories, just remember to
export DISPLAY=:0 before running any GUI tool.
Beware: There is no hardware acceleration as all drawing commands go through the loopback network interface (It should be faster than RDP though), so better do not run something like Firefox or Chromium on that.
How to get rid of it again
This is as easy as installation. To remove everything, including your home dir:
lxrun /uninstall /full
To just remove the Ubuntu installation: